321 – Anatomy and Physiology
Guide for Exam 1
Recommended Review: Go to this link and
do the Online Quizzes and Labeling Exercises for Chapters 1 through 5
Another good site you can use to review
and test your knowledge is http://www.getbodysmart.com/
You are responsible for the following
information from Chapters 1 - 4
Anatomy and Physiology (p. 2)
- Define anatomy and physiology, and explain how they are related.
Organization of Body Parts (p. 2)
- Describe each level of organization of the body with reference to
Anatomical Terms (p. 3)
- Use the terms that describe the relative positions of body parts
and the planes, sections, and regions of the body.
- List the cavities of the body, and state their locations.
- Name the organs located in each of the body cavities.
Organ Systems (p. 9)
- List the organ systems of the body, and state the major organs
associated with each.
- Describe in general the functions of each organ system.
Homeostasis (p. 12)
- Describe homeostasis, and explain in general how homeostasis is
- Define disease, and explain the difference between a local and a
- Explain why chemistry is pertinent to a study of the body.
Elements and Atoms (p. 17)
- Name and describe the subatomic particles of an atom, and indicate
which one accounts for the occurrence of isotopes.
Molecules and Compounds (p. 18)
- Distinguish between ionic and covalent reactions, and between ionic
and covalent bonds.
- List and discuss the functions of ions in the body.
Some Important Inorganic Molecules (p. 20)
- Describe the structure of water, and give examples of how it
functions in the body.
- Relate the term electrolyte to the presence of ions in body fluids
- Define the terms acid and base. Describe the pH scale, and explain
the significance of buffers.
Some Important Organic Molecules (p. 23)
- Compare and contrast the structures and functions of carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
- Explain what enzymes are, and describe their role in the body.
- Describe how the structure and function of DNA and RNA differ.
- Describe the structure of ATP, and explain how ATP functions in the
The Plasma Membrane (p. 34)
- Describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane.
The Nucleus (p. 35)
- Describe the structure and function of the nucleus.
- Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis.
The Cytoplasm (p. 36)
- Describe the roles of ribosomes and the three types of RNA in
- Describe the structures and roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and
the Golgi apparatus in packaging and secretion.
- Describe the structures of lysosomes and the role of these
organelles in the breakdown of molecules.
- Describe the structure of mitochondria and their role in producing
- Describe the structures of centrioles, cilia, and flagella and
their roles in cellular movement.
Plasma Membrane Transport
- Describe how substances move across the plasma membrane, and
distinguish between passive and active transport.
Cell Division (p. 42)
- Give an overview of mitotic cell division, and explain the
mechanism by which the chromosome number stays constant.
- Contrast mitosis with meiosis in general terms.
Body Tissues (p. 49)
- Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial
- Name the major types of epithelial tissues, and relate each one to
a particular organ.
- Describe the general characteristics and functions of connective
- Name the major types of connective tissues, and relate each one to
a particular organ.
- Describe the general characteristics and functions of muscular
- Name the major types of muscular tissues, and relate each one to a
- Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous
Body Membranes (p. 59)
- Name the different types of membranes, and relate each one to a
particular location in the body.
- State the names and locations of the serous membranes found in the
Structure of the Skin (p. 63)
- Describe the regions of the skin and the subcutaneous layer.
- Name two main epidermal layers, and describe their structure and
Accessory Structures of the
Skin (p. 65)
- Describe the structure and growth of hair and nails.
- Name three glands of the skin, and describe their structure and
Functions of the Skin (p. 67)
- List and discuss four functions of the skin.
Disorders of the Skin (p.
- Name the three types of skin cancer, and state their cause.
- Name and describe four types of burns with regard to depth.
- Describe how the "rule of nines" may be used to estimate
the extent of a burn.
- Describe the steps by which a skin wound heals.
Effects of Aging (p. 73)
- Anatomical and physioloigical changes occur in the integumentary
system as we age