A & P Study Guide
Exam # 2
Chapter 6 – Skeletal System
Skeleton: Overview (p. 79)
at least five functions of the skeleton.
a classification of bones based on their shapes.
the anatomy of a long bone.
the growth and development of bones.
and describe eight types of fractures, and state the four steps in
Axial Skeleton (p. 82)
between the axial and appendicular skeletons.
the bones of the skull, and state the important features of each bone.
the structure and function of the hyoid bone.
the bones of the vertebral column and the thoracic cage. Be able to label
diagrams of them.
a typical vertebra, the atlas and axis, and the sacrum and coccyx.
the three types of ribs and the three parts of the sternum.
the bones of the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle. Be able to label
diagrams of them.
the bones of the upper limb (arm) and the lower limb (leg). Be able to
label diagrams that include surface features.
- Cite at
least five differences between the female and male pelvises.
Joints (Articulations) (p. 100)
how joints are classified, and give examples of each type of joint.
the types of movements that occur at synovial
Effects of Aging (p. 105)
and physiological changes occur in the skeletal system as we age.
Chapter 7 – Muscular System
Types and Functions of Muscles (p. 111)
the three types of muscles, and indicate whether each type is
and discuss four functions of muscles.
Skeletal Muscle Structure and Contraction (p. 111)
the anatomy of a whole muscle and a muscle fiber.
the manner in which a muscle fiber contracts.
a muscle twitch, summation, and tetanus.
how ATP is made available for muscle contraction.
how muscles work together to achieve movement.
muscle tone and the effect of contraction on the size of a muscle.
Skeletal Muscles of the Body (p. 117)
the superficial muscles of the head, neck, and trunk; shoulder and upper
limb (arm); and thigh and lower limb (leg). Indicate their origins and
insertions, and give their functions
Chapter 8 – Nervous System
Nervous System (p. 136)
the three functions of the nervous system.
the structure and function of the three types of neurons and four types of
how a nerve impulse is conducted along a nerve and across a synapse.
the structure of a nerve and the differences between the three different
types of nerves.
the structure of a reflex arc and the function of a reflex.
Central Nervous System (p. 144)
the major parts of the brain and the lobes of the cerebral cortex. State
functions for each structure.
in detail the structure of the spinal cord, and state its functions.
the three layers of meninges, and state the function
how cerebrospinal fluid is formed and circulates.
Peripheral Nervous System (p. 152)
the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, and give a function for each.
the structure and function of spinal nerves.
and describe the autonomic nervous system.
between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions in four ways, and
give examples of their respective effects on specific organs.
Effects of Aging (p. 158)
and physiological changes occur in the nervous system as we age.
Chapter 9 – Sensory System
General Receptors (p. 166)
sensory receptors according to the system used in the text.
the four senses of the skin, and state the location of their receptors.
the function of visceral receptors.
the function of proprioceptors.
Chemoreceptors (p. 168)
the chemoreceptors, and state their location,
anatomy, and mechanism of action.
Photoreceptors (p. 169)
the anatomy and function of the accessory organs of the eye.
the anatomy of the eye and the function of each part.
the sensory receptors for sight, their mechanism of action, and the
mechanism for stereoscopic vision.
common disorders of sight discussed in the text.
Mechanoreceptors (p. 179)
the anatomy of the ear and the function of each part.
the sensory receptors for balance and hearing, and their mechanism of
Effects of Aging (p. 183)
and physiological changes occur in the sensory system as we age.
Gravis (p. 171)
Lenses (p. 178)
Damage and Deafness (p. 182)